Book One: Historical Facts

Historical Figures, Places, Devices in BOOK ONE

Chapter 4

Capella Sistina The Sistine Chapel is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of Pope, in Vatican City. Famous artists like Botticelli and Michelangelo painted on its walls and ceilings.

Isaac Newton: (1643 – 1727). Mathematician, Astronomer, Physicist, Philosopher, Scientist and Alchemist. He is 
considered one of the Great Minds of the 17th Century. Newton was born in Woolsthorpe, England. He is known for his discoveries in optics, motion and mathematics. Newton also developed the principles of modern physics. The book he published in 1697 “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica” is considered to be the most influential book on physics.





Leonardo da Vinci
 (1452-1519) Mathematician, Engineer, Painter, Anatomist, Sculptor, Architect, Botanist, Musician, Writer, and Alchemist. He was born in Vinci, Italy, Leonardo was considered as one of the greatest artists of the Renaissance (Renaissance Man). Known for his works as an Artist “Mona Lisa”, “The Last Supper”, “Virgin of the Rocks” and many more, Leonardo was one of the most influential artists of the Renaissance period. Although he was known as an artist Leonardo da Vinci was a great inventor and a visionary. Amongst his inventions are “Anenometer”, “Flying Maching” and many more.

Chapter 5

Carl G. Jung (1875-1961) Inventor, Psychologist, Psychiatrist, Journalist. He was born in Kesswil, Switzerland, Carl Jung was the founder of analytical psychology. Known for his theories on Collective Unconscious, Concept of Archetypes, Synchronicity and Psychotherapy. Best known for his work “The Psychology of Unconscious” and “Psychological Types”. Jung was considered one of the principle founding father of modern psychology.


Chapter 6

Zosimos of Panopolis (around 300 AD) Alchemist and Gnostic Mystic. He was born in Panopolis, Zosimos is considered to be first real Alchemist writer. Zosimos is the author of the oldest known book on alchemy, which is written in the Ancient Greek language. He provided one of the first definitions of alchemy as the study of “the composition of waters, movement, growth, embodying the disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies.” (from Mendeleyev’s Dream-the Quest for the Elements).

Alexandria Founded by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. Alexandria was the capital of Egypt and was considered to be the one of the biggest ports and centers of civilizations and cultures of the day. Known for its giant lighthouse “Pharos of Alexandria” on the island of Pharos, which is one of the Seven Wonders of the World and it’s library “Alexandrian Library” that had the biggest collection of papyrus rolls in the whole antique world.

Chapter 7

Pharos of Alexandria

 built around 280 B.C. by Sostratus of Cnidus, Pharos of Alexandria is one of the Seven Wonders of the World and one of the most famous lighthouses in history of mankind. It’s structure stood on the island of Pharos in the harbor of Alexandria. Its height was estimated to be a little more then 350 feet (110 meters). Some reports describe a huge statue on top of the lighthouse representing either Alexander the Great or Ptolemy I Soter in the form of the sun god Helios.

Alexander the Great 

(356-323B.C.)was born in Pella, Macedonia,Greece. Alexander became the king of Macedonia at 336 till his death. Alexander the Great was the one who set the foundation for the Hellenistic world. He became a Hero and a Legend and with his army he overthrew the Persian Empire and carried his soldiers till India.

Ptolemy I Soter (around 367-282B.C.) was born in Macedonia and became a general of Alexander the Great. He became the ruler of the Egyptian Region (323-285 B.C.) and was the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. The Ptolemaic dynasty lasted till 30 B.C. when the Roman came to power.


Euclid (around 323 to 285 BC) Mathematician. Not a lot is know about Euclid's life. According to Proclus 's (Greek philosopher) reports Euclid was a tutor in the Alexandrian Library during the reign of Ptolemy I Sorter who ruled over the region of Egypt. Known as the “Father of Geometry”, wrote a collection of his theorems called “The Elements”. His works were influenced by Pythagoras, Aristotle, Eudoxus and Thales.

Archimedes 
(around 287-212 B.C.) Mathematician, Physicist, Astronomer, Engineer, Inventor. He was born in the Greek city-state of Syracuse on the Island of Sicily. Archimedes is considered to be the greatest scientist of the Classical Age. He is known for discovering the relation between the surface and volume of a sphere and its circumscribing cylinder. He invented the Archimedean Screw which is still used (especially in developing countries) to pull water out of the ground.

Eratosthenes the librarian (276-194B.C.) Scientist, Astronomer, Poet, Philosopher, Geographer. Born in Cyrene, Libya, Eratosthenes became the chief Librarian of the Library in Alexandria. He is considered to be the first to invent the principle of geography and also the first person to ever calculate the circumference of the Earth. Eratosthenes noted that in a specific time and date sunlight fell at an angle of 7,2 degrees from the vertical in Alexandria.

Seven wonders. The most impressive monuments created in the Ancient World: The Great Pyramid at Giza Egypt, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the statue of Zeus at Olympia Greece, the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, the Colossus of Rhodes and the Lighthouse of Alexandria, Egypt.

Helios (or Helius) was the god of the Sun. He was considered each day at dawn, to drive his chariot of four horses from the Eastern Ends of the Earth until the lands of Hesperides (Evenings) in the West end of the Earth.

Aswan is located in far South “corner” of Ancient Egypt. At first it was called Swenett (from the Ancient Egyptian Goddess) and the Egyptian symbol of trade. Swenett was the closest city to the beginning of the waters of the river Nile, thus the Egyptians considered Swenett as the “begin” of it. Aswan's latitude and measurements of it's shadow length on the solstice was used by Eratosthenes in comparison with the measurements taken from Alexandria to preform the first known calculation of the circumference of the Earth.

Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Biology, Chemistry, Ethics, History, Logic, Metaphysics, Rhetoric, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of science, Physics, Political Theory etc. He was born in Stagira, Chalcidice, Greece. Aristotle was the tutor of Alexander the Great and later on he was the founder of the “Lyceum” in Athens. He was also the founder of “formal logic” and he pioneered the study of zoology. It has been estimated that Aristotle was the author of 200 works (in form of notes and manuscripts). His ethics and political theory writings are still studied and are considered powerful and current.

Alchemists

 are philosophers and scientists spanning from antiquity to times even after Renaissance. Their objectives varied but historically have typically included among others the creation of the philosopher's stone; the ability to transmute base metals into the noble metals (gold or silver) as well as the development of an elixir of life.

Sahara Desert 
(in arabic: The Great Desert) consists most of North Africa and it is the largest desert in the World (3,320,000 square miles or 8,600,000 square kilometers). It is bordered in the North by the Mediterranean sea and the Atlas Mountains, the West by the Atlantic Ocean, in the East by the Red Sea and in the South by the 16o N Latitude.

Chapter 8

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879- 18 April 1955) Theoritical Physicist and Philosopher of Science. He was born in Ulm, Wurttemberg, Germany. Einstein developed the general theories of relativity which is considered one of the two pillars of modern science. He is well known by his mass energy equivalance “ E = m c2 “ . In 1921 he received a Nobel Prize in Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect. Einstein is considered to be the most influential physicist and one of the brightest minds of the 20th century.



Karl Benz (25 November 1844 – 4 April 1929) Mechanical Engineer. Karl was born in Karlsruhe, Baden, Germany. He was the first one to design and built a car powered by an internal-combustion engine (called Motowagen). The Motorwagen in it's first form was a three-wheeled car. In 1893 Benz's company built the first four-wheeled car. He is the founder of the Mercedes car manufacturing company.

Johannes Kepler (27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) Mathematician, Astrologer and Astronomer. He was born in Weil der Stadt, Wurttemberg, Germany. He is considered to be one of the chief founders of contemporary astronomy. Kepler was the first to explain the planetary motion. He was also the one who discovered and analyzed the three major laws of planetary motion. In 1596 Kepler published an astronomy book named “Mysterium Cosmographicum” . In his book he contained the “Secret of the Universe”.

Tadeus Hajek “Tadeas Hajek” (1 December 1525 – 1 September 1600)Physician, Astronomer, Doctor. He was born in Prague. Hajek became the personal physician of the Holy Emperor Rudolph II.

Voynich Manuscript It is a book that numbers 250 vellum pages that are filled with unknown writings in an unknown alphabet and elaborate drawings. It is considered to be one of the most mysterious books ever published. The book was discovered in 1912 by an antique book dealer. By carbon-dating the vellum of the reading it is thought that the composed in the early 15th century during the Renaissance in Italy. The book was named after Wilfrid Voynich which was the Polish book dealer who discovered it.

John Wallis (23 November 1616 – 28 October 1703) Mathematician. He was born in Ashford, Kent, England. Wallis contributed in the of Mathematics and calculus and he is considered to be one of the most influential English mathematician before Newton. He also served as a chief cryptographer for the Parliament and the Royal Court.

Rudolf II (18 July 1552- 20 January 1612) He was born in Habsburg, Vienna. Rudolf became Holy Roman Emperor (1576-1612). He was also crowned King of Hungary as “Rudolf” in 1572, of Bohemia in 1575 as “Rodulf II” and became Emperor after succeeded his father as archduke of Austria as “Rudolf V” in 1576. When he moved to Prague he lived in seclusion, he focused his interest in the Arts and Sciences. Due to his bad health and his unpopularity he wasn't able to restrain the religious dissensions that led to the “Thirty Years' War”.

Golden Lane Prague It is a street inside the Prague Castle complex. It is believed that in the 16th century alchemists lived there searching for ways to produce gold, thus the temporary name that was given to this lane “Alchemists Alley”.

Castle of Prague (around 880) Founded by Prince Borivoj of the Premyslid Dynasty, it is the Largest coherent Castle complex in the World (almost 70,000m2) according to the Guinness Book of World Records.

Chapter 9

St. Vitus Cathedral It is a Gothic masterpiece and religious and spiritual symbol of the Czech State. It took almost six centuries for the whole structure to be completed. Besides being a spiritual symbol, St. Vitus Cathedral was also used for the coronation of the Czech kings and queens. Part of the Cathedral is the Great South Tower which has 287 steps and it is more he 90 meters high.

Tycho Brahe (14 December 1546 - 24 October 1601) Astronomer. He was born in Knudstrup, Scania, Denmark. He is considered to be the most accurate Astronomer to position more than 77 fixed stars and to comprehensively study the solar system before the invention of the telescope.

Rudolfine (Rudolphine) Tables Are planetary tables and star catalogs that were published by Kepler in 1627, which were based on the principles founded by Tycho Brahe. These were considered the best catalogs before the invention of the telescope that contained positions of 1,005 stars by Kepler (from Tycho's 777) and also contained tables and directions for locating the planets. It was named after Rudolf II, the Holy Roman Emperor which was also the patron of Kepler and Tycho.

Cabinet of curiosities Also know as “Cabinet of Wonder”, was a collection of various artifacts (of Natural History, Geology, Ethnography, Relics, works of Art, Inventions etc.) and sometimes even fake ones that were kept in storage. This place served as a place for contemplation or demonstration of imperial power and magnificence.

Bohemian crystal It is a type of glass that is produced in the Bohemian region and Silesia which are parts of the Czech Republic. It is recognized worldwide for it's high quality, beauty and craftsmanship.

Basilica of St. George Founded by Vratislaus I of Bohemia, Basilica of St. George is the oldest surviving church within the Castle of Prague complex. Nowadays it is used for 19th century Bohemian Art Gallery Collection and a concert hall.

Chapter 10

Francis Bacon (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) Philosopher, Statesman, Scientist, Author. He was born in London, England. Bacon was considered by some as the “Father of Empiricism”, also known for as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method. With his work, he introduced the inductive methodologies for the scientific inquiry also known as the “Scientific Method”. Bacon was also the author of the utopian novel “New Atlantis”.

New Atlantis Written by Francis Bacon, “New Atlantis” is an incomplete Utopian novel that was published in 1627. In his book, Bacon expressed his visions and hopes for the future of mankind's discoveries, knowledge, public spirit, morals, value and enlightenment that took place in a mythical place of Bensalem.

William Shakespeare ( 26 April 1564 (baptized) – 23 April 1616) Poet, Playwright, Actor. He was baptized (no official records of birth) in Stratford-upon-Avon, England and very little is known about his personal life. Shakespeare was also known as “England's national poet”, he is considered to be the greatest writer in the English language and the world's preeminent dramatist. Through his work he was trying to capture the complete range of human emotion and conflict. After his death a lot of questions came to pass about the legitimacy of his authorship. Skeptics have also questioned as to how a person with such a modest educational background could have written plays with such intellectual perceptiveness and poetic power.

Rosicrucian brotherhood Rose-Croix Founded in the late medieval Germany by Christian Rosenkreuz, it is a secret philosophical society. With the symbol of the Rosy Cross, it is believed, that the brotherhood is based on truths of the ancient past that provide insights into the physical universe, the spiritual realm and nature.

Georg Joachim (16 February 1514- 4 December 1574) Astronomer, Mathematician, Cartographer. He was born in Feldkirch, Austria. Also known as Rheticus he is best known for his trigonometric tables and he was one of the first to adopt and expand the heliocentric theory. Joachim started of as a pupil of Nicolaus Copernicus, with his influence Joachim published his first account that shed a new light on “The First Account of the Book on the Revolution by Nicolaus Copernicus”. After Joachim’s death his pupil Valentin Otto completed and published his treatise “The Palantine Work on Triangles”

John Dee (13 July 1527 – 1608 or 1609) Philosopher, Mathematician, Astronomer, Alchemist, Navigation, Hermeticism. Born in Tower Ward, London, Dee was the first to apply Euclidean geometry to navigation and to chart the Northeast and Northwest Passages. He became an adviser of Queen Elizabeth I. John Dee was also believed to be the founder (or one of them) of the Rosicrucian Order. He also was a known trainer of the first great navigators.

Invisible College. It is believe to be the “predecessor” of the group Royal Society of London. The college was composed of a number of natural philosophers. It has been said that member of the Invisible College were prominent figures that later were linked with the Royal Society.

Royal Society (official foundation 28 November 1660) It is considered to be the continuation of the “Invisible College” and it was stared by groups of physicians and natural philosophers, they were influenced by Francis Bacon's “New Science” in his book “New Atlantis”. Among the first members were Christopher Wren, John Wilkins, Sir Robert Moray and Viscount Brounker. They met weekly to conduct experiments.

Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691). Natural Philosopher, Physicist, Chemist, Inventor, Alchemist. Born in Country Waterford, Ireland, he is considered to be the first modern chemist. He is mostly known for “Boyle's law” that describes the inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of gas. He also helped in the foundation of the Royal Society of London.

John Wilkins (14 February 1614 – 19 November 1672) Natural Philosopher, English Clergyman, Author, Administrator. He was one of the founders of the Royal Society. Wilkins was a polymath, he was one of the few that studied both in Oxford University and Cambridge University. In addition he was also one of the founders of the new natural theology that was compatible with the science of that period.

Michael Maier (1568 – 1622) Epigramist, Composer, Physician, Alchemist. Born in Rendsburg, Holstein, he was German and he was appointed as imperial counsellor and physician to Rudolf II.

Clare College (Hall) is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. The college was founded in 1326 as University Hall, making it the second-oldest surviving college of the University after Peterhouse. The college was known as Clare Hall until 1856, when it changed its name to "Clare College".

Great Wall of China (begin of built 7th BC) Its is a series of fortifications made of brick, stone, tamped earth, wood and of the materials. They were built along the east-to-west at the northern borders of China to protect them from raids of intruders. When the walls were finally connected they were enforced and made bigger. After their union they were referred to as The Great Wall of China.

Marco Polo (15 September 1254 – 8 January 1324) Merchant, Journalist, Explorer. He was born in Venice, Italy. Polo traveled a lot with his family from Europe to Asia and vice-versa. He also lived in China for 17 years. He was known for his writing “The Travels of Marco Polo” which at the time no one believed to be true. After his death he finally got his recognition, verified by researchers, explorers and academics.

Chapter 11

Otto Lilienthal (23 May 1848 – 10 August 1896) Engineer, Inventor. He was born in Pomerania, German kingdom of Prussia. Lilienthal was also known as the “Glider King”, he was a pioneer of aviation. The gliders he created were a result of careful observations of birds. The work and the great invention made by Lilienthal later inspired Orville and Wilbur Wright.

Wright Brothers (Orville and Wilbur) Inventors, Aviation Pioneers, Pilots and Pilot Trainers. Oliver was born in 19th of August 1871 in Dayton, Ohio and Wilbur was born 16th of April 1867 in Millville, Indiana. They were known for inventing and building the World's first successful airplane and the first ever human flight. Although the were not the first ones to ever fly with experimental air-machines, they were the first to invent the airplane controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible.

Montgoflier Brothers (Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Etienne) Inventors. Joseph Montgoflier was born in 26 August 1740 and Jacques Montogolfier was born in 6 January 1745. They were the inventors of the Montgolfier-style hot air balloon. In 1783 due to their achievements the King Louis XVI of France elevated Pierre (Father of the Montgoflier Brothers) to nobility.

Chapter 12

The French Revolution was a ten year period with enormous social and political upheaval in France (1789-1799). The Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, changing the political conditions almost in the whole world. Republics and democracies replaced monarchy in many countries as a result of this. Some consider that the French Revolution was helped and triggered because of the industrial revolution that gave more power to the working class.

King George III of Britain (4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820)
He was the King of Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 till his death. During his reign, King George pushed through a victory for Britain in the Seven Years' War against France.

Treaty of Paris (3rd September 1783) It was signed in Paris by the representatives of King George III of Great Britain and the representatives from the United States of America, signaling the end of the American Revolutionary War.

Seven Years War (1756-1763) The War began by the British attack against a French posts (in North America) and the captivation of French merchant ships. It involved almost all the known powers of that time period and took place in many regions of the World (ie. Europe, North America, Central America, West African coast, India, the Philippines). The war ended with the “victory” of Great Britain and the signing of the Treaty of Paris.

Constantinople nowadays known as Istanbul, Turkey

Nord-Pas de Calais It is one of the 27 regions of France. It became gradually part of France in 1477-1678 during the reign of King Louis XIV. During the 19th century, the region became highly industrialized, it was believed that the region became a leading industrial region in France.

Jean-Baptiste Reveillon ( 1725 – 1811) Tradesman, Haberdasher, Stationer, Wallpaper Manufacturer. Reveillon was a self-made french business man. During the Seven Years War he started to produce his own wallpaper using vibrant colors and velvet paper. After his interaction with Etienne Montgolfier, in the 12th of September 1783 Reveillon launched the first hot-air balloon from his garden at Folie Titon.

Henry Cavendish (10 October 1731- 24 February 1810) Scientist, Chemist, Physician, Natural Philosopher. He was born in Nice, Kingdom of Sardinia. Cavendish is well known for his discovery of hydrogen or “inflammable air”. He was also know for his accuracy and precision in his measurements while studying gases, the synthesis of water and many more. Cavendish was also know for calculating the density/mass of the Earth.

Charles Jacques (12 November 1746 – 7 April 1823)Physician, Mathematician. He was born in Beaugency, Orleanais. Also known as Charles the Geometer, although one would expect for him to be known for his Mathematical writings and achievements, that's not the case. Charles is known for launching together with the Robert Brothers the World's first unmanned hydrogen-filled balloon in August 1783. In December the same year Charles and Nicolas-Louis Robert (his co-pilot) ascended themselves to a height approximately 550m (1,800) feet. The use of hydrogen for lifting a balloon was later named Charliere.

Nicolas-Louis Robert (2 December 1761 – 8 August 1828) Soldier, Mechanical Engineer, Clerk, Teacher. He was born in Eglise Saint-Eustache,Paris, and he known for a paper-making invention that later later the “Fourdrinier machine” was based upon. His first machine was patented in 1799 and it was used to make continuous paper. Due to legal and financial quarrels Robert lost his rights for the machine he made and be later became a school teach.

La Charliere (1st December 1783) Hydrogen balloon named after Professor Jacques Charles.

Jean- Pierre Blanchard (4th July 1753 - 7th March 1809) Inventor, Aviator. He was born in Les Andelys, France. Blanchard was known for the first aerial crossing above the English Channel with the American physician John Jeffries. As a pioneer in balloon flight Blanchard was also the first to make balloon flights over England, Germany, Belgium, Poland and North American.

Dr. John Jeffries (5th February 1745 - 16th September 1819) Physician, Scientist, Military Surgeon. He was born in Boston, US, known for accompanying Jean-Pierre Blanchard in 1785 balloon flight over English Channel. Furthermore Jeffries was also known for being America's first weather observers by was taking daily measurements and studying them.

George Washington (22nd February 1732 - 14th of December 1799) He was born in Westmoreland, Virginia, British American and became the first President of the United States (1789-1797). He was also the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary and one of the Founding Father of the United States.

Chapter 13

Louis XVI of France (23 August 1754 - 21 January 1793) He was born in Palace of Versailles, France. Son of Louis, Dauphin of France and grandson of Louis XV of France, Louis XVI was the last king of France (1774-1792) before the French Revolution. Louis was an active supporter of the North American Colonists that were seeking their independence which came in 1783 by signing the Treaty of Paris. After a series of bad government decision-making policies Louis “brought” upon himself the French Revolution that began in 1789 with the storming of the Bastille. His death came by execution in 1793.

Bastille Saint-Antoine also known as Bastille fortress was built 1370-1380s during the reign of Charles V of France. It was used by the kings of France as a place of imprisonment for criminals or anyone who wanted to start internal conflicts or civic uprising in the state of France. In 1789 raged crowd stormed in the Bastille fortress that marked the begin of the French Revolution making it a important symbol of the Revolution.

Marquis de Sade (2nd June 1740 - 2nd December 1814) Aristocrat, Philosopher, Social Critic, Poet, Writer, Delegate of National Convention. He was born in Paris and he was a son of diplomat in the court of Louis XIV. Marquis was a controversial figure mostly concerning his writings and personal life. He was a prisoner in Bastille fortress and was freed during the crowd storm in 1789. He later got elected as a Delegate of National Convention.

National Convention also know as “French Convention Nationale” during the critical period (1792 – 1795) of the French Revolution was an assembly that governed France. The purpose of the election of the National Convention was the drafting of the new constitution following the decline of the French monarchy.

British Museum (established 1753) located in the Bloomsbury area of London. When first founded in 1753 the British Museum was largely based on Sir Hans Sloane's personal collections (printed book, manuscripts, plants, sprints and drawings various natural history specimens and all kind of objects). Following the opening to the public in 1759, the museum has expanded resulting to the creation of several branch Institutes like the Natural History and the British Library (previously known as the Round Reading Room).

Sydney Smirke (1798 – 8 December 1877) Architect. He was born in London, England, his father was a well-known painter and his brother was also an architect. He received in 1860 the “RIBA Royal Gold Medal” and he later became an associate, elected full Academician, RA treasurer and professor of Architecture of the Royal Academy. Amongst his well-known works is the British Museum Reading Book (1854-57).

Pantheon in Rome (built in 118-128AD) It is a Roman Temple that was commissioned during the reign of Augustus by Marcus Agrippa. One of the best-preserved Ancient Roman building the Pantheon has circular structure with 16 Corinthian columns on its portico. It has been used continuously throughout its history and from the 7th century on-wards it has been used as a church which is dedicated to “Saint Mary and the Martyrs”.

An aeolipile (or aeolipyle, or eolipile), also known as a Hero engine, is a simple blade-less radial steam turbine which spins when the central water container is heated. Torque is produced by steam jets exiting the turbine, much like a tip jet or rocket engine. In the 1st century AD, Hero of Alexandria invented this machine. It is considered to be the first recorded steam engine.

Heron of Alexandria (10 AD – 70AD)Mathematician, Physics, Mechanics, Engineer. Also known as Hero of Alexandria was born in Alexandria, Egypt. Although most of his work was lost, whatever remains is preserved in Arabic manuscripts. He was most known for his steam-powered device “Aeolopile”. Heron it has been said that he was influenced by the work of Ctesibius. Furthermore Heron was known to teach at the Musaeum that included the Library of Alexandria. Finally considered to be the greatest experimenter of antiquity and a important representative of the Hellenistic scientific tradition.

Heron “shortest distance” theory: Heron came up with the Principle of the Shortest Path of Light that stated that if a light ray propagates from one point to another within the same medium the path that it takes is the shortest one.

Jacob Richter pseudonym of Karl Marx while a Journalist for the “New York DailyTribute”.

Karl Marx (5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) Economist, Historian, Philosopher, Journalist, Revolutionary, Sociologist. He was born in Tier, Prussia. Most known for his publication “The Communist Manifesto” in 1848 and his book “Das Kapital”. While in London Marx became one of the European correspondent of American Newspaper “New York Daily Tribute”. Karl Marx together with his colleague Friedrich Engels later on set the infrastructure of the belief known as Marxism.

Chapter 14

Pierre de Fermat (17 August 1601 – 12 January 1665) Mathematician and Lawyer. He was born in Beaumont-de-Lomagne, France. He was best known for “Fermat's Last Theorem”. Furthermore Fermat was recognized for discovering and original way of finding the greatest and the smallest ordinates of curved lines. He also contributed greatly in analytic geometry, probability and optics.

Principia Newton's manuscript 1687
"Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" is a work by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687. After annotating and correcting his personal copy of the first edition,Newton also published two further editions, in 1713 and 1726. The Principia states Newton's laws of motion, forming the foundation of classical mechanics, as well as Newton's law of universal gravitation.

Henriot's Saltpeter factory. It was located in the St. Antoine district of Paris, next to Jean-Baptiste Receillon's factory that produced luxury wallpapers. Henriot was the owner of the manufacturing saltpeter factory. Saltpeter also known as saltpetre contains several nitrogenous compounds including potassium nitrate. When the Reveillon Riots occurred during the French Revolution, Heriots' factory was the was first one to be destroyed dew to the fact that the French Guard was not protecting it unlike Reveillons' factory, that was destroyed the next day.

Hermetic tradition (Hermeticism) philosophical and religious tradition that was based on writings allocated to Hermes Trismegistus.

Mechanical philosopher In Early Scientific Revolution in Europe, universe is considered by the Mechanical Philosophers as a huge mechanical devise.

 

Chapter 15

Durante degli Alighieri or Dante Alighieri (1265 – 1321)States man, Poet, Language theorist. He was born in Florence, Italy. He was known for “Divine Comedy” which is still considered the greatest literary work written in the Italian language. The first part of the “Divine Comedy” Inferno (translation: Hell) is the story of Dante’s journey through Hell, which is located within Earth and has nine circles of suffering.

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) Physics, Philosophy. He was born in Ulm, Kingdom of Wurttemberg, German Empire. Einstein was known for the effect he had on the philosophy of science and for his “general theory of relativity” which is one of the two pillars of modern physics. Although he many accomplishments and he contributed greatly in the many fields of science, Einstein is best know for his mass-energy equivalence formula E=mc^2 which is considered “the world’s most famous equation”.

Stephen Hawking (born in 8 January 1942). Theoritical Physicist, Cosmologist, Author. He was born in Oxford, England. Hawking is known for been the first to set forth a cosmology explained by the combination of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.(check the wording). He is also a great supported that quantum mechanics is a the key to understand the universe and how it functions.

 

Chapter 16

Ferdinand Magellan (1480 – 27 April 1521) Map making, Explorer. He was either born in Sabrosa or Porto, Portugal. Although he was Portuguese, Magellan traveled in service of both Spain and Portugal. When serving for Spain he sailed around South Africa and across the Pacific and he discovered the Strait of Magellan. He is known for being the first to organize and complete ever circumnavigation of the Earth, although he was killed in the Philippines one of his ships continued westward to Spain.

 

Chapter 17

Supermarine Spitfire is a British fighter aircraft that was used by the Royal Air Force and had a single seat. First flew in March 1936 and it was mostly used during and after the Second World War by the Brits and the Allied Forces. The Spitfire is a high-performance short-range aircraft interceptor.

 

Chapter 18

Christopher Columbus (31st October 1451 - 20th May 1506) Explorer, Navigator, Colonizer. He was born in Genoa, Italy. He completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean under the sponsorship of Ferdinard II and Isabella I, the Catholic Monarchs of Aragon, Castile, and Leon in Spain. Columbus is known to be the first discover the “New World” (the Americas) although Vikings first traveled to North America over five centuries before him.

Santa Maria Ship It was the largest of the three ships that Christopher Columbus used for his first transatlantic voyage in 1492. Santa Maria was built in Pontevedra and it was a medium sized ship (Carrack).

 

Pinta It was the fastest of the three ship that Christopher Columbus used in his first transatlantic voyage. Pinta was a type caravel vessel.

Santa Clara (Nina Nickname) It was a standard type-caravel vessel that was used by Christopher Columbus for his first transatlantic voyage.

Bartolomeu Dias or Diaz (1450 - 29th May 1500) Nobleman, Explorer, Navigator. He was born in Algarve, Kingdom of Portugal. He was sent by King John II to find a way to the Indian Ocean and to explore the coast of Africa. Dias was known for being the first to lead a European expedition to round the Cape of Good Hope in 1488. He is also considered to be one of the greatest Portuguese pioneers that explored the Atlantic Ocean in the 15th century.

Treaty of Tordesillas (7 June 1494) It was an agreement aiming in the conflict settlement over lands that were newly discovered or explored, the considering parties were Spain and Portugal.

Vasco da Gama (1460 – 24th December 1524) Explorer, Navigator. He was born in Sines, Portugal. He was known to be the first European to reach India by an ocean route with his first voyage (1497-1499). Vasco da Gamas' discovery opened the way for the Portuguese to establish a lasting colonial empire in Asia. Due to the highly populated and disputed Mediterranean sea and the dangerous Arabic Peninsula it was very risky to travel to India, thus Vasco da Gama re-opened the “path of spices” finding an alternative path way to India.

Victoria (ship) (launched in 1519) It was a Spanish Carrack vessel. Victoria was the ship of Ferdinand Magellan and it was the first ship (after the passing of Magellan) to successfully circumnavigate the world on the command of Juan Sebastian.

Trithemius Cipher (1508) It was published by Johannes Trithemius which was a German author and monk. The book used the “tabula recta”(a square table of alphabets that each row is made by shifting the previous one to the left) to define a polyalphabetical cipher.

 

Chapter 19

Leibniz machineIn 1670s the German mathematician-philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz designed and built a calculating machine called the Step Reckoner.The Step Reckoner did multiplication by repeated addition and shifting. It is considered to be one of the first mechanical calculators.

Chapter 21

Atlantis or island of Atlas. It is a fictional place that was mentioned by Plato in his writings “Timaeus” and “Critias”. The allegory of Atlantis was used as by many utopian works during the Renaissance such as Bacon's “New Atlantis” and More's Utopia.

Calypso was an Ancient Greek Mythology nymph. She was the daughter of the Titan Atlas. Calypso lived on the island Ogygia where she kept Odysseus captive for several years.

Odysseus or Ulysses was the King of Ithaca in Ancient Greece. He was the main character in Homer's in the epic poem “Odyssey”. He was known for his brilliance, guile and versatility. After the war of Troy it took him ten years to get back to his home Kingdom Ithaca and he had to face many challenges during his trip.

London Tower. Also known as Tower of London is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It was built in the 11th Century. It served as a prison for many years although built as a palace. Later as the Royal Residence. As a whole, the Tower is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. There were several phases of expansion, mainly in the 12th and 13th centuries.

Ramon Llull (1232 – 1315) Philosopher, Logician Hermetic Alchemist. He was born in Majorca, Spain. He was known as the inventor of the “art of finding the truth” which was mainly to support the Roman Catholic faith in missionary work and the union of all branches of knowledge. Llull was also known for helping the development of the Romance Catalan language.

Edward the First (17th June 1239 - 7th July 1307) King of England. Also known as Edward Longshanks, he was born in the Palace of Westminster, London.

Crusades: The Crusades were eight military campaigns during the middle ages (1096-1270) during which the Roman Catholic Church tried to acquire and hold control over the Holy land of Christianity: Jerusalem. In 1076 the Muslims took hold of Jerusalem, an equally important city for them. Several hundred thousand citizens from all over Europe became Crusaders by taking a public vow. The Crusades managed to expand Europe's strength allowing trading and ports and cities like Genoa and Venice to get even more powerful.

Dignities of God (Phenomena) or the Dignitates Dei, are for Ramon Llull the seven names or attributes of God that make up all phenomena. Llull tried to create a universal philosophy that could explain everything. He devised a concentric system of disks where letters created the seven dignities and several combinations.

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